Resilience models

As of today (21 April 2022), a total of approximately 260 bridges have been damaged, which is an average of 5 bridges per day.

We are currently creating an inventory of damaged bridges, and other critical infrastructure assets, to quantify the upfront direct (structural) and indirect (traffic, functionality, services, environmental) losses and to inform the resilience models.

We collect data and forensic evidence by people on the ground to inform resilience models. A resilience model for a critical asset, i.e. a bridge, is shown below:


vulnerability & robustness: depend on the bridge type, e.g. continuous or simply-supported deck, material, component(s) affected by the blast

redundancy: for the bridge, depends on the alternative paths to transfer loads to the ground (aka statically indeterminate structure); for the network depends on the alternative routes

resourcefulness: depends on the capacity to mobilise needed resources and services post-disaster

idle time: depends on duration of conflict, accessibility, responsiveness and prioritisation

rapidity & recovery time: depend on owner’s policy, prioritization due to bridge importance, available resources, extent of damage, restoration tasks

See also:

Mitoulis, S.A., Argyroudis, S., Panteli, M., Fuggini, C., Valkaniotis, S., Hynes, W., Linkov, I., Conflict Resilience Framework for Critical Infrastructure Peacebuilding. Available at SSRN: or